It started in the late 1800's, particularly at Princeton Seminary, when Biblical standards and interpretations were challenged by modern science and philosophical theory. Many began to find ways of interpreting the Bible is ways that accommodated ideas such as theistic evolution, personal determinations of sin and righteousness (if it is right for you then it is right), and Christian deism (the idea that God just set things in motion and is watching our lives from a distance without any sort of direct interaction).
Christian fundamentalism was a response to these liberal ideas of theology.The Fundamentalist movement established hard and fast rules of interpretation: that the Bible is all that we need to understand biblical truth, that God in His sovereignty is orchestrating every action on earth, that sin is anything which separates us from God (defined according to the current standard of religious observance).
But, this isn't the first time we've seen man's wisdom and understanding try to slip its way into our interpretation of the things of God.
When Alexander the Great invaded with Middle East, he marched through Jerusalem and took over the land without killing a single person. Legend is that he marched straight into the Temple and entered the Holy of Holies (at that point in time, an empty room). The story says that he was there, in silence and alone for a very long time. Then, when he emerged, he said, "Let these people worship however they choose."
Well, being Greek was exciting and intellectually challenging. The Israeli people quickly embraced Greek culture and philosophy. But in order to retain their Jewish identity, they began to interpret the Bible with broad definitions: to be inclusive. Put simply, if the Bible didn't say anything against something, specifically and directly, then it was okay. These were known as the Sadducees.
Later, after the Maccabean revolt (the story of Hanukkah), about 100 years before Jesus was born, people started to see that the have-your-cake-and-eat-it-too religiosity wasn't really working. I mean, it had all the pieces, and everything seemed normal and natural; but there was distinct absence of God. So, this brought about a theological revolution that the whole purpose of the Bible was to connect with God. And, the Bible wasn't just a set of rules and old stories to keep us in line; but an invitation to draw us into intimate fellowship with God. These people were known as the Pharisees.
But, there was another program of religious understanding in that day. And these people felt like they possessed the "higher ground" so to speak, because they were never lulled into the Greco-Roman paganism that religious Israel struggled with. They believed the Bible, in it's most literal interpretation, rejecting all the various interpretative teachings that Judaism had compiled over generations. The Bible, alone, itself, was all that they needed for spiritual enlightenment. Everything else was man made and corrupt. This group lived outside of the land of Israel, slightly to the North. They were known as Samaritans.
Now, we know that the Sadducees weren't the standard that Jesus would call His Church to follow. His interactions were limited, and at best, terse. We know that the Samaritans did not have a legitimate example for us to follow. Jesus told the Samaritan woman, "You don't even know what you worship; but we known what we worship for salvation is of the Jews." (That's John 4:22). In Acts 23 verse 6, Paul the Apostle identifies himself as being a Pharisee (not once had been a Pharisee but currently practicing that kind of faith). It's clear, at least in my mind, that the Sadducees followed exactly the same reasoning as the modern Christian liberals. The Fundamentalists, in reaction to liberal interpretation, went with the model patterned by the Samaritans. So, what today's Christian practice seems to be missing is the Pharisees (who are largely labeled as bad guys in Church). So, I guess there's not a title for what I believe and how I choose to practice. It's not about believing the Bible in a way that's not going to make waves in the world. But, it's not about sitting isolated on my mountain of self-righteousness either. It's about walking with God. And, call it what you want. But, I'm not looking for labels to raise me up or put me down. I just want to get closer to God.