The formula that He provides in Luke chapter 11, is consistent with the elements we understand in Hebraic prayer. He didn't really add anything to what they already understood and practiced. But, quite the opposite, He took what they had practiced in hours of meditation, and refined it down to six very simple statements.
He takes them back to Solomon's instruction on prayer found in Ecclesiastes 5:2. "Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter anything before God: for God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few."
In Matthew 6:7,He repeats this idea, teaching, "But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathens do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking."
Rabboni Yeshua, instead, teaches them, "After this manner ought you to pray:
Our Father who is in heaven, holy is Your name."
The very first think we should notice about this model is that it is presented in first person, plural: not "the Father," not "my Father," but, "Our Father." This is a traditional aspect of Hebrew prayer, never offered for me, or for my sake alone; but as a representative of the Church (the People of God). So, when we pray, we are not praying selfishly, or with a self-serving agenda; but always on behalf of the whole of the People.
"Our Father who is in Heaven" is often misunderstood. Heaven, in English, typically refers to the celestial bodies beyond our Earth's atmosphere. It suggests that God is beyond our reach and higher than our natural ability to connect. But, the Greek word "oraynos" that is translated "heaven" also means "eternity" (the Hebrew word is "ow-lam"). The character of this word is exactly the opposite, described artistically in Psalm 139:7-13
Whither shall I go from thy spirit?
or whither shall I flee from thy presence?
If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there:
if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there.
If I take the wings of the morning,
and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;
Even there shall thy hand lead me,
and thy right hand shall hold me.
If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me;
even the night shall be light about me.
Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee;
but the night shineth as the day:
the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.
For thou hast possessed my reins:
thou hast covered me in my mother's womb.
So, when we pray, our Father who is in heaven, we are not praying to the God who is very far away; but to the God who is everywhere- not who is untouchable, but from whom we can never escape.
"Holy is Your Name." The holiness of God's name is not simply a magic incantation as some may try to employ it (if we pray with the right name God will hear us, but if we use the wrong name, He will not). The Messiah is speaking to the character of God, and describing the character of our prayer. We are praying to a God who is holy, therefore our prayers must also be holy. There is, then, the such thing as an inappropriate prayer, such as, that our baseball team should win, or that rain should not inconvenience our picnic. There are times when the most benign prayers (seemingly insignificant) are absolutely holy; but other times when the most lofty supplications are utterly irreverant, simply because we are not praying in holiness to a holy God: simply to the Guy upstairs who has the power to do our personal bidding should we find Him in a gratuitous mood.
Messiah goes on, "The kingdom come." This is a complete thought, though we have often associated it directly, even as synonymous with the following phrase, "Thy will be done." Yet, the two ideas are completely distinct. "Thy kingdom come," is a declarative acknowledgment that God's reign of authority is without borders. This is the idea that the Centurion whose servant was sick described when he came to Yeshua in Matthew 8:9 (also Luke 7:8). He said, "For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me..." The Centurion recognized himself to have a limited scope of authority, within a specific order, then described Yeshua, in like manner, as having a limited scope of authority within a very different order. This prayer describes God as having authority without limit or scope. It is a Kingdom/authority to spans all, and is not limited to "come"or "extend"to where ever He pleases.
"Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven," is not a request, but a recognition of the facts. In Greek, the nouns are placed oppositely as what reads easily in English. It is better rendered, "as in heaven, so on earth." But, remember, that "oraynos" is not talking about the celestial realm. It is talking about eternity. So, in the same vernacular, the earth (Greek, "ghay") is often used to describe the temporal, the now. The Levites in Nehemiah9:6 prayed in acknowledgement that if God were not singularly holding the stars in heaven on their courses, that the universe would collapse. Yeshua applies this same acknowedgment, (as in heaven), to our present mortal condition (so on earth).
So, in recognition that I am only alive and able to offer prayer because God has purposefully and specifically established that it should be so, I can pray in confidence, "Give us, this day our daily bread." Immediately, we should be reminded of the manna that fell from heaven, each day: never more than what we needed, and never less than what would provide for the entire nation (Exodus 16): how we wandered in the wilderness and He provided for our every need. As much as a request, this too is an acknowledgment of His providence. Every prayer of request, prayed in holiness, should equally be an expression of gratitude for God's constant benevolence toward us in meeting our every need.
"And forgive us our debts," literally, "sins": every occasion that we have failed to live up to the standard of His righteousness, "as we forgive those who are indebted to us." Some translations place us on equal terms with God, "forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who have trespassed..." but it isn't the same idea at all. Our standard of righteousness is irrelevant. Yeshua says this plainly in Matthew 7 (echoed by James in James 5:9) that we are not to hold each other to our arbitrary standards of morality; but, when we have been wronged or damaged, we acknowledge our obligation to offer and make the way for restitution and reconciliation.
"And lead us not into temptation..." literally, "don't test us to the breaking point." This echoes the command of the Law in Deuteronomy 6:16, "You shall not put the Lord, your God, to the test as you tempted Him in Massah." The request is an appeal for intimacy, "Don't see how far away from You we will go, but be constantly wooing us closer to You."
"... but deliver us from evil," in direct contrast to not leading us into temptation, we ask that God save us (literally, snatch us away) from anything that would do us harm (including anything that may jeopardize the intimacy with Him).